out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

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out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Peter Mc Donough
Hi,

I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
new.
Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.

So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
Tumbleweed simply require more space.

cu
Peter



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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Felix Miata-3
Peter Mc Donough composed on 2017-06-03 21:48 (UTC+0200):

> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything new.
> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.

> So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
> Tumbleweed simply require more space.

Which DE(s) is/are installed?

Are your logs being rotated?

What's in your /var/log/journal/*? Those can get large, old and useless.

Is zypper keeping all your installed packages in cache?

How many kernels are installed?

Here on host gx62b, Plasma and IceWM are the only installed DEs. 5 kernels
remain installed. 95% of 5655815 1k total blocks are in use on EXT3 /, compared
to 77% of 5655815 for TDE/IceWM on 42.3 with 2 kernels, 87% of 5655815 for
TDE/IceWM on 42.1 with 5 kernels, and 76% of 5655815 for KDE4/IceWM on 13.1 with
4 kernels. TW/Plasma does seem rather bloated here.
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Knurpht - Gertjan Lettink
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
Op zaterdag 3 juni 2017 21:48:29 CEST schreef Peter Mc Donough:

> Hi,
>
> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
> new.
> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
>
> So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
> Tumbleweed simply require more space.
>
> cu
> Peter

If you used the defaults, your root filesystem is btrfs. Another default is to
make a snapshot whenever the  system is updated. These are probably causing
the growth.

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Nate Graham


On 06/03/2017 04:59 PM, Knurpht - Gertjan Lettink wrote:

> Op zaterdag 3 juni 2017 21:48:29 CEST schreef Peter Mc Donough:
>> Hi,
>>
>> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
>> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
>> new.
>> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
>>
>> So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
>> Tumbleweed simply require more space.
>>
>> cu
>> Peter
>
> If you used the defaults, your root filesystem is btrfs. Another default is to
> make a snapshot whenever the  system is updated. These are probably causing
> the growth.
>

Is there any kind of snapshot rotation policy, or do they grow until
manually purged?

Nate

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Felix Miata-3
In reply to this post by Knurpht - Gertjan Lettink
Knurpht - Gertjan Lettink composed on 2017-06-04 00:59 (UTC+0200):

> Peter Mc Donough composed:
...
>> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
>> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
>> new.
>> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB....

> If you used the defaults, your root filesystem is btrfs. Another default is to
> make a snapshot whenever the  system is updated. These are probably causing
> the growth.  

"for years around" implies an older installation, as does 10GB, likely before
the name "Tumbleweed" supplanted "Factory", and before BTRFS became default.
And, he did write EXT4 root.

Some people aren't agreeable to every default. I saw nothing in OP to suggest OP
used them. I have 0 TW installations out of >20 using BTRFS, and probably as
many using EXT3 as EXT4. Might OP have done likewise, and not used the BTRFS
default?
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Patrick Shanahan-2
In reply to this post by Nate Graham
* Nate Graham <[hidden email]> [06-03-17 19:09]:

>
>
> On 06/03/2017 04:59 PM, Knurpht - Gertjan Lettink wrote:
> >Op zaterdag 3 juni 2017 21:48:29 CEST schreef Peter Mc Donough:
> >>Hi,
> >>
> >>I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
> >>than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
> >>new.
> >>Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
> >>
> >>So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
> >>Tumbleweed simply require more space.
> >>
> >>cu
> >>Peter
> >
> >If you used the defaults, your root filesystem is btrfs. Another default is to
> >make a snapshot whenever the  system is updated. These are probably causing
> >the growth.
> >
>
> Is there any kind of snapshot rotation policy, or do they grow until
> manually purged?

/etc/snapper/configs/root

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Karl Cheng
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
Check /tmp and /var/tmp, I believe these are never cleaned out by
default. (Reason given being that someone might place permanent stuff
there?)

Also, as Felix mentioned, it would also be useful to check the size of
/var/log to make sure logs are being handled properly.

On 4 June 2017 at 05:48, Peter Mc Donough <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Hi,
>
> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more than
> 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything new.
> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
>
> So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
> Tumbleweed simply require more space.
>
> cu
> Peter
>
>
>
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

nicholas cunliffe
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
On Saturday, 3 June 2017 21:48:29 CEST Peter Mc Donough wrote:

> Hi,
>
> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
> new.
> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
>
> So, just out of curiosity, did the system miss some housekeeping or does
> Tumbleweed simply require more space.
>
> cu
> Peter
I had issues last year with core dumps being saved (and snapshoted) by
default, if anything has started crashing, check /var/lib/systemd/coredump/  

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Neil Rickert
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
On 06/03/2017 02:48 PM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:

> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
> new.
> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.

I'm still under 10G.

Check how many kernels you have:
 ls -l /boot/vmlinuz*

If you have more than 3, then maybe the purge-kernel service (or
whatever it is called) has not been enabled.

Also, open Yast Software Management.  Select the "Package groups" view.
Click on "orphaned packages".  These are packages that are no longer in
any of your enable repos.  I do a cleanup there from time to time.

Note, however, that if you have installed something directly with an
RPM, or from a repo that you have since disabled, that will also show up
as orphaned.

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Anton Aylward-2
In reply to this post by Karl Cheng
On 03/06/17 08:46 PM, Karl Cheng wrote:
> Check /tmp and /var/tmp, I believe these are never cleaned out by
> default. (Reason given being that someone might place permanent stuff
> there?)


Good point!

The OP did not make it clear if any of those were separate mounted file systems.

On my system the are, so if my RootFS suddenly grew by 20% I wound *KNOW* that
it was not because  of anything in /tmp, /var/tmp, /var/log/ or the entries in
/var die to spooling, SMTP out being delayed or similar

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Peter Mc Donough
In reply to this post by Neil Rickert
Am 04.06.2017 um 13:21 schrieb Neil Rickert:
> On 06/03/2017 02:48 PM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
>
>> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
>> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
>> new.
>> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.

Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one
"/" and one "/home" partition, both on ext4.

> I'm still under 10G.

That size I know from previous openSuse variants, below you can see that
tmp is set to be regularly cleaned by the system.
>
> Check how many kernels you have:
>   ls -l /boot/vmlinuz*

the usual suspects:
du -hx /boot         72M    /boot
du -hx /tmp                          80K    /tmp
du -hx /var/tmp                      84K    /var/tmp
du -hx /var/lib/systemd/coredump    2,0M    /var/lib/systemd/coredump
du -hx /var/log                     314M    /var/log

du -hx / shows

4,2M /root
1,4M /srv
2,3M /bin
8,5M /sbin
  14M /lib64
  19M /etc
706M    /lib
767M /opt (libreoffice 5.2)
1,1G /var
8,8G    /usr
12G /

/usr with 8.8G is the frist suspect,

59M /usr/sbin
35M     /usr/include
692M /usr/lib
2,5G /usr/lib64
132K /usr/local
522M /usr/bin
1,6G /usr/src (two kernels, 4.11.3-x, 4.11.2-x)
3,5G /usr/share

> Also, open Yast Software Management.  Select the "Package groups" view.
> Click on "orphaned packages".  These are packages that are no longer in
> any of your enable repos.  I do a cleanup there from time to time.

Nothing "red" there.

Could you have a look at the size of the biggest directoryies in /usr

cu
Peter
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Nate Graham
Suprred by this thread, I decided to investigate my own disk usage
situation and found that BTRFS subvolumes don't seem to be well handled
by the various tools that report disk usage. My / partition is 40G, with
the full complement of BTRFS subvolumes that the YaST installer sets up
by default. I'm trying to figure out how much space is used:

$ > df -hl /
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/nvme0n1p2   40G   22G   19G  54% /

But that can't be right...


$ sudo du -ch / -d 1
[sudo] password for root:
18M     /etc
240G    /.snapshots
79M     /boot
62M     /opt
1.4M    /srv
361M    /tmp
5.5G    /usr
1.8G    /var
57G     /home
4.0K    /dev
0       /proc
0       /sys
1.8M    /run
2.7M    /bin
615M    /lib
13M     /lib64
0       /mnt
11M     /root
12M     /sbin
0       /selinux
0       /media
305G    /
305G    total

Heh, that's even worse. Dolphin agrees with df, but Filelight comes up
with its own answer and says that 8.9G is used.

What is the canonical source of truth for disk usage on BTRFS volumes
with subvolumes?

Nate


On 06/04/2017 07:29 AM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:

> Am 04.06.2017 um 13:21 schrieb Neil Rickert:
>> On 06/03/2017 02:48 PM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
>>
>>> I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
>>> than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
>>> new.
>>> Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
>
> Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one
> "/" and one "/home" partition, both on ext4.
>
>> I'm still under 10G.
>
> That size I know from previous openSuse variants, below you can see that
> tmp is set to be regularly cleaned by the system.
>>
>> Check how many kernels you have:
>>   ls -l /boot/vmlinuz*
>
> the usual suspects:
> du -hx /boot                 72M    /boot
> du -hx /tmp                          80K    /tmp
> du -hx /var/tmp                      84K    /var/tmp
> du -hx /var/lib/systemd/coredump    2,0M    /var/lib/systemd/coredump
> du -hx /var/log                     314M    /var/log
>
> du -hx / shows
>
> 4,2M    /root
> 1,4M    /srv
> 2,3M    /bin
> 8,5M    /sbin
>   14M    /lib64
>   19M    /etc
> 706M    /lib
> 767M    /opt (libreoffice 5.2)
> 1,1G    /var
> 8,8G    /usr
> 12G    /
>
> /usr with 8.8G is the frist suspect,
>
> 59M    /usr/sbin
> 35M     /usr/include
> 692M    /usr/lib
> 2,5G    /usr/lib64
> 132K    /usr/local
> 522M    /usr/bin
> 1,6G    /usr/src (two kernels, 4.11.3-x, 4.11.2-x)
> 3,5G    /usr/share
>
>> Also, open Yast Software Management.  Select the "Package groups" view.
>> Click on "orphaned packages".  These are packages that are no longer in
>> any of your enable repos.  I do a cleanup there from time to time.
>
> Nothing "red" there.
>
> Could you have a look at the size of the biggest directoryies in /usr
>
> cu
> Peter

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Patrick Shanahan-2
* Nate Graham <[hidden email]> [06-04-17 10:28]:

> Suprred by this thread, I decided to investigate my own disk usage situation
> and found that BTRFS subvolumes don't seem to be well handled by the various
> tools that report disk usage. My / partition is 40G, with the full
> complement of BTRFS subvolumes that the YaST installer sets up by default.
> I'm trying to figure out how much space is used:
>
> $ > df -hl /
> Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/nvme0n1p2   40G   22G   19G  54% /
>
> But that can't be right...
>
>
> $ sudo du -ch / -d 1
> [sudo] password for root:
> 18M     /etc
> 240G    /.snapshots
> 79M     /boot
> 62M     /opt
> 1.4M    /srv
> 361M    /tmp
> 5.5G    /usr
> 1.8G    /var
> 57G     /home
> 4.0K    /dev
> 0       /proc
> 0       /sys
> 1.8M    /run
> 2.7M    /bin
> 615M    /lib
> 13M     /lib64
> 0       /mnt
> 11M     /root
> 12M     /sbin
> 0       /selinux
> 0       /media
> 305G    /
> 305G    total
>
> Heh, that's even worse. Dolphin agrees with df, but Filelight comes up with
> its own answer and says that 8.9G is used.
>
> What is the canonical source of truth for disk usage on BTRFS volumes with
> subvolumes?
>
> Nate
>
>
> On 06/04/2017 07:29 AM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
> >Am 04.06.2017 um 13:21 schrieb Neil Rickert:
> >>On 06/03/2017 02:48 PM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
> >>
> >>>I noticed that the stuff on my ext4-root-partition has grown by more
> >>>than 20% over the last few month and I'm not aware that I added anything
> >>>new.
> >>>Usual requirements have been for years around 10GB.
> >
> >Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one
> >"/" and one "/home" partition, both on ext4.
> >
> >>I'm still under 10G.
> >
> >That size I know from previous openSuse variants, below you can see that
> >tmp is set to be regularly cleaned by the system.
> >>
> >>Check how many kernels you have:
> >>  ls -l /boot/vmlinuz*
> >
> >the usual suspects:
> >du -hx /boot                 72M    /boot
> >du -hx /tmp                          80K    /tmp
> >du -hx /var/tmp                      84K    /var/tmp
> >du -hx /var/lib/systemd/coredump    2,0M    /var/lib/systemd/coredump
> >du -hx /var/log                     314M    /var/log
> >
> >du -hx / shows
> >
> >4,2M    /root
> >1,4M    /srv
> >2,3M    /bin
> >8,5M    /sbin
> >  14M    /lib64
> >  19M    /etc
> >706M    /lib
> >767M    /opt (libreoffice 5.2)
> >1,1G    /var
> >8,8G    /usr
> >12G    /
> >
> >/usr with 8.8G is the frist suspect,
> >
> >59M    /usr/sbin
> >35M     /usr/include
> >692M    /usr/lib
> >2,5G    /usr/lib64
> >132K    /usr/local
> >522M    /usr/bin
> >1,6G    /usr/src (two kernels, 4.11.3-x, 4.11.2-x)
> >3,5G    /usr/share
> >
> >>Also, open Yast Software Management.  Select the "Package groups" view.
> >>Click on "orphaned packages".  These are packages that are no longer in
> >>any of your enable repos.  I do a cleanup there from time to time.
> >
> >Nothing "red" there.
> >
> >Could you have a look at the size of the biggest directoryies in /usr
> >
> >cu
> >Peter


man btrfs
  btrfs fi sh /


really???  top posting and no trimming, SHAME ON YOU!
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Jan Engelhardt-4
In reply to this post by Nate Graham

On Sunday 2017-06-04 16:27, Nate Graham wrote:

> $ > df -hl /
> Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/nvme0n1p2   40G   22G   19G  54% /
>
> But that can't be right...
> $ sudo du -ch / -d 1
> [sudo] password for root:
> 18M     /etc
> 240G    /.snapshots
>
> Heh, that's even worse. Dolphin agrees with df, but Filelight comes up with its
> own answer and says that 8.9G is used.
>
> What is the canonical source of truth for disk usage on BTRFS volumes with
> subvolumes?

Which truth would you like?

https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/FAQ#Understanding_free_space.2C_using_the_original_tools
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

nicholas cunliffe
In reply to this post by Patrick Shanahan-2
On Sunday, 4 June 2017 16:31:03 CEST Patrick Shanahan wrote:
> btrfs fi sh /

to get more info (e.g. see data/metadata, unallocated etc) use:
sudo btrfs filesystem usage -h /
(good to add as an alias)

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Anton Aylward-2
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
On 04/06/17 09:29 AM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
>
> Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one "/" and
> one "/home" partition, both on ext4.

How big is your disk drive, overall?

Tucked under my desk I have my old laptop.  Now it serves as my MySQL-server and
email archiver, but in days gone by it was my workhorse.

It had a mere 90G drive (and still does) that was (and still is) set up with
LVM.   As it turns out I don't use all of the drive.  I never did.

However with LVM I made the point of having separate /tmp, /var, /usr/share and
/srv.  Now I also have a partition dedicated to the SQL database.

It made backup much easier.
It also avoided some vulnerabilities that could arise from hard-linking to
between /tmp and /sbin, and others that could arise from soft-linking, because I
mounted /tmp "nosuid,nodev,noexec".  Heck, ~Downloads and ~MyDocuments and
~MyMovies and ~MyMusic are mounted that way too.  A good, if slightly, paranoid,
attitude.   YMMV on that.

As I've pointed out, if my RootFS grows then I'm *sure* something is wrong.

When you have all your non-home stuff on your RootFS a lot of things can happen
to alter its size and more, some perfectly legitimate, some a slackness in
administration, and some that can be dangerous.  Some of that dangerous stuff
might even be malicious.

I don't think my "precautions" are excessive.  They may seems  lot to people who
don't make use of partitioning or LVM, but with LVM, its easy.

Yes there are people who think that LVM is complex.  Well Bully!  Driving a car
is more complex!  You have a lot more things to consider and end up doing it for
a much longer period of time when driving a car.

I mention my old laptop because it has only the 90G drive,  Its running 13.2 and
isn't going to get LEAP'd since its a i586 machine (see 32-bit vs 64-bit
thread).  Old as it is, it would still server as a writing/browsing/email engine
for everyday use, if it wasn't for its weight!

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An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory. -- Friedrich Engels
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Neil Rickert
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
On 06/04/2017 08:29 AM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:

> Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one
> "/" and one "/home" partition, both on ext4.

Okay.  I'm now looking at a desktop, at around 10G.  It was installed
Nov 30, 2016 (I'm going by the date of "/lost+found".  It was installed
originally as snapshot 20161128 (I'm going by the name of the repo that
was the install media).

This one is at near 10G.  It has KDE, Gnome, MATE, XFCE and LXQt
desktops installed.

"/home" is part of "/", but is small.  It mainly has symlinks to my real
home partition mounted at "/xhome".  I do that to avoid fights between
Tumbleweed and Leap for desktop settings.

From "/usr"

# du -s *
747304  bin
77260   include
788024  lib
3963684 lib64
3316    local
66932   sbin
3312956 share
240128  src
0       tmp
8       X11R6
16      x86_64-suse-linux

I do not have kernel sources installed.  That might be significant.

I think you might be seeing the effect of Parkinson's law for software
bloat -- "Software expands to consume all available disk space".

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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Larry Finger
On 06/04/2017 11:08 AM, Neil Rickert wrote:

> On 06/04/2017 08:29 AM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
>
>> Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one
>> "/" and one "/home" partition, both on ext4.
>
> Okay.  I'm now looking at a desktop, at around 10G.  It was installed
> Nov 30, 2016 (I'm going by the date of "/lost+found".  It was installed
> originally as snapshot 20161128 (I'm going by the name of the repo that
> was the install media).
>
> This one is at near 10G.  It has KDE, Gnome, MATE, XFCE and LXQt
> desktops installed.
>
> "/home" is part of "/", but is small.  It mainly has symlinks to my real
> home partition mounted at "/xhome".  I do that to avoid fights between
> Tumbleweed and Leap for desktop settings.
>
>>From "/usr"
>
> # du -s *
> 747304  bin
> 77260   include
> 788024  lib
> 3963684 lib64
> 3316    local
> 66932   sbin
> 3312956 share
> 240128  src
> 0       tmp
> 8       X11R6
> 16      x86_64-suse-linux
>
> I do not have kernel sources installed.  That might be significant.
>
> I think you might be seeing the effect of Parkinson's law for software
> bloat -- "Software expands to consume all available disk space".

On my system with ext4 partitions. /home and /var have their own partitions:

finger@linux-cj1t:~/rtlwifi_sync> sudo du -d 1 -x /
[sudo] password for root:
2352    /bin
28428   /etc
2111172 /lib
16      /lost+found
1388    /srv
13576   /lib64
7710532 /usr
4       /opt
4       /mnt
4       /selinux
331484  /boot
8724    /sbin
1316    /tmp
10720   /root
10219724        /

The only desktop installed is KDE, and 3 kernels are installed. When I first did
the du command, my usage was 11.7 GB. The difference is that /lib/modules had
entries for 3 kernels that had been deleted from /boot. That is a place to check.

Larry


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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Peter Mc Donough
In reply to this post by Anton Aylward-2
Am 04.06.2017 um 17:11 schrieb Anton Aylward:
> On 04/06/17 09:29 AM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
>>
>> Addition: This is fresh "KDE-Tumbleweed" from around Nov. 2016, with one "/" and
>> one "/home" partition, both on ext4.
>
> How big is your disk drive, overall?

Really big enough.
I have three OS on a 250GB SSD, each with 20GB for / and 10GB for /home
plus SSD space for virtual machines, plus 1TB HDD for all that for which
an SSD could be useful but is not yet cheap enough to retire the HDD.
File throughout is ext4. All data, which is not required by the system
is on the HDD. Data-backup is as easy as it could be.

Over the years, I have been through all that: different partitions for
/boot /tmp / and /, LVM, lately btfs.
Usually openSuse seldom needed more than 10 GB for the OS, so 20 GB for
/ has been enough.

I think LVM is usefull if several physical drives are combined. With a
single SSD the procedure has changed, you simply take away space from
one partition and allocate it to an other. Yast ist king.

> Tucked under my desk I have my old laptop.  Now it serves as my MySQL-server and
> email archiver, but in days gone by it was my workhorse.
>
> It had a mere 90G drive (and still does) that was (and still is) set up with
> LVM.   As it turns out I don't use all of the drive.  I never did.
>
> However with LVM I made the point of having separate /tmp, /var, /usr/share and
> /srv.  Now I also have a partition dedicated to the SQL database.

I don't understood why that should make a system backup easier apart for
a backup for the database which is anyhow on a different partition. I
used to clean /tmp before I did backups, with my present setup /tmp and
/var/tmp are about 200K, so who cares and all other directories have to
be backed up anyway.

> It made backup much easier.
> It also avoided some vulnerabilities that could arise from hard-linking to
> between /tmp and /sbin, and others that could arise from soft-linking, because I
> mounted /tmp "nosuid,nodev,noexec".  Heck, ~Downloads and ~MyDocuments and
> ~MyMovies and ~MyMusic are mounted that way too.  A good, if slightly, paranoid,
> attitude.   YMMV on that.

My data, as I said, is on the HDD and gets an system-independent backup
each day. Very nice, I can connect and access it from any OS.

> As I've pointed out, if my RootFS grows then I'm *sure* something is wrong.

I also keep an eye on root and I noticed the increase. I like to find
out what has grown.

> When you have all your non-home stuff on your RootFS a lot of things can happen
> to alter its size and more, some perfectly legitimate, some a slackness in
> administration, and some that can be dangerous.  Some of that dangerous stuff
> might even be malicious.
> ...
> Yes there are people who think that LVM is complex.  Well Bully!  Driving a car
> is more complex!  You have a lot more things to consider and end up doing it for
> a much longer period of time when driving a car.

You are right, driving a car is much more complex than any computer. But
LVM would solve a problem I don't have.

> I mention my old laptop because it has only the 90G drive,  Its running 13.2 and
> isn't going to get LEAP'd since its a i586 machine (see 32-bit vs 64-bit
> thread).  Old as it is, it would still server as a writing/browsing/email engine
> for everyday use, if it wasn't for its weight!

What about moving to Debian Jessie, much simpler than driving a car;-) I
did it with my little eeePC (1GB RAM, 12GB SSD-Space) works like a charm
and gets security updates till 2022, I think.

cu
Peter
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Re: out of curiosity - / grow from 10 to 12GB

Bernhard Voelker
In reply to this post by Peter Mc Donough
On 06/04/2017 03:29 PM, Peter Mc Donough wrote:
> du -hx / shows

Time for du(1)'s --threshold option to filter stuff greater
than a given value (available since coreutils-8.21), e.g.:

  $ du -t +1G -xh /

Have fun,
Berny
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